##### About pulses used in MCUs [essential in control systems]

Hardware and Pulse Pulse type TTL Standard ■ TTL general 1 (High)/0 (Low) level VIH(min. voltage to be regarded as High)approx. 2.0V VIL(max. voltage to be regarded as Low)approx. 0.8V i.e., the logic is 1 (High) at 2.0V or higher and 0 (Low) at 0.8V or lower. CMOS Standard ■ CMOS general 1 (High)/0 (Low) level VIH(min. voltage as High)0.5-0.7 x […]

##### Basic hardware circuits around Microcontroller [Must-see for beginners]

Electric Circuits and Ohm's Law Voltage divider circuit Digital Basic Circuit Colum In an electric circuit, a load resistor R is required. In the above figure, if there is no load, a short circuit (short circuit) will occur the moment the switch is turned ON. The value of the load R is explained in "Input […]

##### Bits, bytes, words and digital logic [essential for Microcontroller]

In MCU programming, bit operations are often used in addition to the four arithmetic operations on data. The concepts of bits, bytes, and words are indispensable, especially when MCU skills improve and MCU registers are set directly. This chapter provides a basic explanation of digital logic, so please make sure you understand it well. Bits, […]

##### Number of bits and usage of Microcontroller

What are microcontroller bits? Use of microcontrollers by number of bits The point For those who aim to become embedded engineers not only as hobbyists but also as professionals, we recommend starting with 32-bit MCUs, which have full performance and functions.

##### Digital Details [Required for Microcontroller programming]

Digital Basics Sampling Taking values sporadically in the time direction is called sampling. Sampling is also called sampling period T when expressed in time, and sampling frequency f when expressed in frequency.The sampling period T is the reciprocal of the frequency T=1/f Quantization The division of the amplitude direction into several steps is called quantization, […]

##### What is analog handled by Microcontroller? What is digital? [Let's start here]

The first concepts to understand when dealing with MCUs are analog and digital. Many people may be surprised that they cannot explain what the difference is between analog and digital. This chapter explains both concepts in an easy-to-understand manner, which is very important when dealing with MCUs in Basics of Embedded Technology section. What is […]